Monthly Archives: February 2012

Differentials

The differential is a gear system that transfers power from the drive shaft to the driving axles, Fig. 46-4.

wpg3 300x208 Differentials

wpg4 300x245 Differentials

     It also permits one driving wheel to turn faster than the other to prevent skidding and scuffing of tires on turns, Fig. 46-5.

     In tracing the drive train to this point, power is relayed:

  1. From drive shaft to pinion gear.
  2. From pinion gear to ring gear.
  3. From ring gear to attached differential case, pinion gears and side gears.
  4. From side gears to driving axles.

 

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Universal Joints

Although it would be desirable to have the drive shaft in line with the engine crankshaft, this design is not practical. In the first place, the wheels move up and down because of road irregularities. Second, the frame moves up and down in relation to the wheels. How much it moves depends on the amount of weight in the automobile body and the limits of the suspension springs and linkage. So a compromise is made, and the “workable” design is intended to provide a line of drive as straight as possible under average conditions.

The universal joints, Fig. 46-2, serve to compensate for changes in the line of drive by transmitting power from a driving shaft. Most cars use two or three universal joints in the drive line between the transmission and differential, Fig. 46-3.

wpg2 300x126 Universal Joints

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Drive Line, Universal Joints, Differentials

In basic passenger car design, the drive line connects the transmission with the driving axles. In effect, it transmits engine power to the driving wheels.

Ordinarily, the engine is mounted on the frame, and the driving wheels are free to move up and down in relation to the frame. In between, the angularity of the line of drive is constantly changing. This means flexibility is needed in the drive system and, usually, it is provided by universal joints. See Figs. 46-1 and 46.2.

 

wpg1 251x300 Drive Line, Universal Joints, Differentials

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Diesel Fuel Injection

There are two different methods of fuel injection: air injection and mechanical injection. In the air injection system, a blast of air from an external source forces a measured amount of fuel into the cylinder.

In the mechanical injection system (now used almost exclusively), fuel is forced into the cylinder by hydraulic pressure on the fuel.  In the automotive field, there are four basic types of mechanical fuel injection systems:

  1. Common rail system.
  2. Pump controlled (or jerk pump) system.
  3. Unit injection system.
  4. Distributor system

COMMON RAIL SYSTEM: The common rail system consists of a high-pressure pump which distributes fuel to a common rail or header to which each injector is connected by tubing, Fig. 27-1.

PUMP CONTROLLED SYSTEM: This is also known as the jerk pump system and provides a single pump for each injector. The pump is separately mounted and is driven by an accessory shaft. Connection to the injectors is made by suitable tubing.

wpg 300x278 Diesel Fuel InjectionUNIT INJECTOR SYSTEM: This system combines the pump and the injector into a single unit. High-pressure fuel lines are eliminated. Operation of the unit injector is usually by means of push rods and rocker arms.

DISTRIBUTOR SYSTEM: There are several types of distributor systems. One type provides a high-pressure metering pump with a distributor which delivers fuel to the individual cylinders. Another design provides a low-pressure metering and distribution. High pressure needed for injection is provided by the injection nozzles which are cam operated.

 

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Fuel Injection

A diesel engine compresses air and, at the point of maximum compression, fuel is injected into the combustion chamber. Ignition takes place as a result of the high temperature created.

The fuel is forced into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine by means of a pump and injector. Since high pressures exist in the combustion chamber at the time of injection, the injection system must develop pressures well in excess of combustion chamber pressure.

In delivering the fuel to the combustion chamber, a diesel fuel injection system must fulfill five main requirements:

  1. Meter or measure correct quantity of fuel injected.
  2. Time fuel injection.
  3. Control rate of fuel injection.
  4. Atomize fuel into fine particles.
  5. Properly distribute fuel in combustion chamber.

 

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The Drive Line

In basic passenger car design, the drive line connects the transmission with the driving axles. In effect, it transmits engine power to the driving wheels.

Ordinarily, the engine is mounted on the frame, and the driving wheels are free to move up and down in relation to the frame. In between, the angularity of the line of drive is constantly changing. This means flexibility is needed in the drive system and, usually, it is provided by universal joints.

 

wpg 255x300 The Drive Line

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The V-8 Powered M56 and M37

During back-to-back stints on the same roads with both cars, it quickly became apparent that the M37 is the weapon of choice for carving up back roads where the M56 felt more ponderous in the twisty sections. Open up the throttle, however, and the V8 delivers a steady power surge that is constant but not explosive. You know that 420 ponies are at work because the scenery goes by quicker but you don’t quite feel the rush.

There are also noticeable differences in the driving dynamics of the M cars equipped with the Sport package, which feel even sharper on corner entry with a more immediate response to steering inputs owing in part to their 20-inch alloys and high-performance tires. Sadly, the Sport package is offered only on the rear-wheel-drive M37 and M56, and not on the volume-leading all-wheel-drive models.

Amazingly enough, fuel consumption figures for all variants of the M cars have improved substantially partly because the automatic gearbox is now a seven-speed unit.

In keeping with the recent trend adopted by the Japanese luxury carmaker, the new M is chock full of electronic driving aids offered in various option packages and identified by three-letter acronyms. The list is long and most of these have been designed to reduce the stress of driving, according to Infiniti. Among them are the BSW (Blind Spot Warning) already featured on many cars, but there is also an industry-first BSI (Blind Spot Intervention) system that will actually prevent you from driving into a vehicle that is in your blind spot by alerting you from driving into a vehicle that is in your blind spot by alerting you with lights, then beeping before finally applying the brakes on the opposite side of the car to help return your vehicle to its lane.

Fortunately, the M features a single button on the steering wheel that deactivates all of these electronic nannies, and another below the dash on the left side to disable the various warning systems for those who can actually look where they are goin when driving .

Infiniti has had a lot of success in challenging the German brands in the lower spectrum of luxury cars with its G models, but the M competes in a higher league where the brand’s image is more of a factor in the buying decision.

It’s clear that the new M can hold its ground in driving dynamics and that it enjoys a significant price point advantage vis-a-vis its direct rivals from BMW and Mercedes-Benz, but making the transition from figuring on a buyer’s list to becoming that buyer’s car of choice is a different matter and the final decision is not always a rational one.

The M cars were to arrive in Canadian dealerships, with different price ranges.

 

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