Tag Archives: cars

Bearing Clearances

A previous study of engine lubrication revealed that oil is pumped under pressure to the various bearings in the engine. However, to get this oil into the bearing and lubricate it, clearance for an oil film must exist.

The one most important thing to keep in mind in this connection is that the steel crankshaft journal MUST be separated from the bearing metal when the engine is running or the bearing will melt. The heat generated by friction when steel moves rapidly on soft, dry metal WILL melt the soft metal. Therefore, an automobile engine uses a film of oil between the journal and the bearing. SPACE MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THAT FILM.

The oil film serves to hold the two metals apart and also circulates to carry away the heat generated by friction. The space is not great  (measured in thousandths), but those thousandths are all important.

This film thickness will vary with the design of the engine and the type of lubrication system used. In general, a splash lubrication system is less critical of oil clearances than a pressure lubrication system. In the splash system, the oil is churned up by internal parts of the engine into a combination of liquid and mist, which is sprayed over the entire interior of the engine.

In the pressure lubricated engine, the oil is pumped under pressure to the bearings. In this case, the flow of oil must be controlled by maintaining limited clearance all around a ROUND bearing and a ROUND shaft. If there are unequal clearances in the circulation system, too much oil will collect in one place, and not enough in other places. This is because oil under pressure will go through the largest clearance space in the greatest quantity.

Chris Cornell loves cars and is a “car guy”.  Chris is an auto enthusiast who just loves Ford Mustangs -  both the old classic 60′s Mustangs all the way to the new 2013 Boss 302s.

Control Arm Drive

In control arm drive, driving and braking forces are transferred to the front end of heavy-duty control arms, Fig.46-9. The torque transfer effect is similar to Hotchkiss drive, but coil springs are used at the rear rather than leaf type springs. Some cars use three control arms, most use four.

wpg3 300x189 Control Arm Drive

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Universal Joints

Although it would be desirable to have the drive shaft in line with the engine crankshaft, this design is not practical. In the first place, the wheels move up and down because of road irregularities. Second, the frame moves up and down in relation to the wheels. How much it moves depends on the amount of weight in the automobile body and the limits of the suspension springs and linkage. So a compromise is made, and the “workable” design is intended to provide a line of drive as straight as possible under average conditions.

The universal joints, Fig. 46-2, serve to compensate for changes in the line of drive by transmitting power from a driving shaft. Most cars use two or three universal joints in the drive line between the transmission and differential, Fig. 46-3.

wpg2 300x126 Universal Joints

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The V-8 Powered M56 and M37

During back-to-back stints on the same roads with both cars, it quickly became apparent that the M37 is the weapon of choice for carving up back roads where the M56 felt more ponderous in the twisty sections. Open up the throttle, however, and the V8 delivers a steady power surge that is constant but not explosive. You know that 420 ponies are at work because the scenery goes by quicker but you don’t quite feel the rush.

There are also noticeable differences in the driving dynamics of the M cars equipped with the Sport package, which feel even sharper on corner entry with a more immediate response to steering inputs owing in part to their 20-inch alloys and high-performance tires. Sadly, the Sport package is offered only on the rear-wheel-drive M37 and M56, and not on the volume-leading all-wheel-drive models.

Amazingly enough, fuel consumption figures for all variants of the M cars have improved substantially partly because the automatic gearbox is now a seven-speed unit.

In keeping with the recent trend adopted by the Japanese luxury carmaker, the new M is chock full of electronic driving aids offered in various option packages and identified by three-letter acronyms. The list is long and most of these have been designed to reduce the stress of driving, according to Infiniti. Among them are the BSW (Blind Spot Warning) already featured on many cars, but there is also an industry-first BSI (Blind Spot Intervention) system that will actually prevent you from driving into a vehicle that is in your blind spot by alerting you from driving into a vehicle that is in your blind spot by alerting you with lights, then beeping before finally applying the brakes on the opposite side of the car to help return your vehicle to its lane.

Fortunately, the M features a single button on the steering wheel that deactivates all of these electronic nannies, and another below the dash on the left side to disable the various warning systems for those who can actually look where they are goin when driving .

Infiniti has had a lot of success in challenging the German brands in the lower spectrum of luxury cars with its G models, but the M competes in a higher league where the brand’s image is more of a factor in the buying decision.

It’s clear that the new M can hold its ground in driving dynamics and that it enjoys a significant price point advantage vis-a-vis its direct rivals from BMW and Mercedes-Benz, but making the transition from figuring on a buyer’s list to becoming that buyer’s car of choice is a different matter and the final decision is not always a rational one.

The M cars were to arrive in Canadian dealerships, with different price ranges.


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Making Your “Short List”

  1. Analyze the type of driving you do (city, country, highway, commuting, weekend tours, shopping trips), and the distance you travel in a typical year.
  2. Determine the usual number of passengers in your car.
  3. Familiarize yourself with cars and options available; read car ads and articles in auto magazines and consumer publications.
  4. Decide on the price range that you can reasonably afford.
  5. Narrow your list down to three or four models and thoroughly examine each one, both on the lot and on the road.
  6. Ask your insurance agent about your choices. What are the differences in insurance costs?


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New Chevelle! by Chevrolet

A KIND OF CAR YOU’VE NEVER SEEN BEFORE! Not a new model or just a new name, but a completely different kind of car from Chevrolet for 1964. Outside, it’s a good foot shorter and a few inches narrower than the big cars. Parks in the tightest places. But the passenger space, leg room and trunk capacity are surprisingly generous. Eleven sedans, wagons, and coupes and convertibles to choose from. Four engines: A 120-hp Six. A 195-hp V8. An extra-cost 155-hp Six. And an extra-cost 220-hp V8 with four-barrel carburetion. Body is by Fisher – and you know what that means in terms of quality and comfort. Brakes are self-adjusting. Service is seldom. Quality is by Chevrolet clear through. And so is the price, you’ll be happy to know. SEE CHEVROLET’S LATEST AT YOUR CHEVROLET SHOWROOM.

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Auto Sales


Hyundai’s first two cars, the Pony and Stellar were quintessential lemons, and the company’s subsequent models have not been much better. The Pony came to Canada in late 1984, and sales took off like wildfire, mainly because of the Pony’s reasonably attractive packaging and very attractive price. The failure-prone Stellar joined the lineup in 1985. By that point, Hyundai had become the number one automobile importer in Canada. The dealer network mushroomed as everyone tried to get into the act. The domestic car manufacturers, and even Hyundai, had not expected this to happen. Everyone was caught off guard, and this automotive house of cards began coming apart. The Pony and Stellar were quickly taken off the market, while the Excel, which arrived in time for the Hyundai sales crash of 1986, was the only model sold in 1988.  Never mind the upcoming Elantra.

This South Korean auto manufacturer was the architect of its own downfall. First, the cars being sold were not subjected to minimally acceptable quality controls. Second, the dealer body expanded too rapidly, allowing people who knew nothing of sales and service to get a franchise. Third, the Stellar, in particular, suffered from serious design deficiencies that should have prevented the car from being sold in the first place. These defects rendered both the Stellar and Pony unsafe, and it would have taken several million dollars to correct the problem. A redesign of the Stellar’s front end and a larger engine for 1987 was too little, too late, to stop the sales slide.

Hyundai’s partner for much of its design and engineering work is Mitsubishi, the maker of Dodge/Plymouth Colts, Eagle Vistas, and Dodge Lasers and Talons. Instead of designing entirely new cars from the ground up, Hyundais are now derivatives of Mitsubishi products. The Excel is a Dodge Colt 100 in Italian disguise, and the Sonata is based on the Mitsubishi Galant, which is sold as the Dodge 2000GTX in Canada.   Wonder what Ford will be up to with its past stable of vehicles like the Taurus / Sable ?

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Check the sensors and pull computer codes

On computer managed engines (most cars from 1980 on), problems with various components and systems are recorded in the computer in the form of codes. With a “scan” tool, a mechanic can recall any codes that indicate problem areas. New-car dealerships have the most sophisticated equipment for this test, but many independent shops also have scan tools now.

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Test the charging system and starter draw

In this test, a charging and starting system analyzer is connected to the alternator and battery. With the engine running, the output and regulation of the charging system is checked with the meters.

The condition of the starter is tested while the engine is cranked for 10 to 15 seconds. This test shows how many amps the starter is drawing, and is compared to specifications. Too much amperage draw could indicate a bad starter.

The battery condition is checked by performing a load test. A defective battery can further be diagnosed by sampling the electrolyte in the cells. The battery date code will also be checked.

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The Haynes Used Car Buying Guide

Most buyers of used cars want the same basic ideal purchase, a clean car that is mechanically-sound and in their price range. The first inspection of the body and interior has told you that the car is clean, and your second important consideration is mechanical condition. Thus, the first step in your more thorough inspection is the engine compartment. If there’s one area that most used car buyers are concerned about, it’s having a sound engine that will provide them years of good service.